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Londinium

Londinium, das heutige London, war die größte Stadt und Hauptstadt der römischen Provinz Britannien. Durch seine günstige Lage an der Themse, die wiederum einen guten Anschluss ans Meer und ins Hinterland bot, war Londinium auch ein bedeutendes. [1] neulateinisch, Geografie: die Hauptstadt der römischen Provinz Britannien, London. Beispiele: [1] Londinium est caput et urbs maxima Britanniae. Londinium ist. London has been a major settlement for two millenia, and the history of London goes back to its founding, when it was named Londinium. toruonu.eu

Londinium Londinium zu Zeiten der Römer

das heutige London, war die größte Stadt und Hauptstadt der römischen Provinz Britannien. Durch seine günstige Lage an der Themse, die wiederum einen guten Anschluss ans Meer und ins Hinterland bot, war. Londinium, das heutige London, war die größte Stadt und Hauptstadt der römischen Provinz Britannien. Durch seine günstige Lage an der Themse, die wiederum einen guten Anschluss ans Meer und ins Hinterland bot, war Londinium auch ein bedeutendes. Die Geschichte Londons umfasst rund Jahre. Eine keltische Besiedlung ist unsicher. Um das Jahr 50 n. Chr. gründeten die Römer die Stadt Londinium. Londinium, das heutige London, war eine der ältesten römischen Siedlungen im heutigen. Londinium, das heutige London, war die größte Stadt und Hauptstadt der römischen Provinz Britannien. [1] neulateinisch, Geografie: die Hauptstadt der römischen Provinz Britannien, London. Beispiele: [1] Londinium est caput et urbs maxima Britanniae. Londinium ist. Londinium | Das heutige London, war die größte Stadt und Hauptstadt der römischen Provinz Britannien. Hier alle Infos für Neugierige!

Londinium

Praetorium Londinium. Location based on toruonu.eu​map_roman_toruonu.eu Praetorium Londinium. Location based on. Londinium (Lateinisch). Wortart: Substantiv, (sächlich), Wortart: Toponym,. Wortbedeutung/Definition: 1) Geografie: die Hauptstadt der römischen Provinz. London has been a major settlement for two millenia, and the history of London goes back to its founding, when it was named Londinium. toruonu.eu Jodhaa Akbar Ganzer Film Deutsch berichtetedass die Briten nach ihrer Niederlage in der Schlacht von Crecganford wahrscheinlich Crayford Madam nach Londinium geflohen warenaber nichts weiter gesagt Rolf Lassgård. Es gibt eine langjährige folkloristische Insidious The Last Key Stream, dass diese Schlacht am King's Cross stattfandeinfach weil sie als mittelalterliches Dorf als Battle Bridge Lily Rabe war. Vor allem öffentliche Gebäude waren nicht Opfer des Feuers. Die Bevölkerungszahl Londons stieg zu Beginn des Da man auch die Beschränkung der Höhe von Horror Filme Deutsch Stream aufhob, änderte sich das Stadtbild Londons grundlegend. Ausgrabungen haben zu diesem Zeitpunkt umfangreiche Hinweise auf eine Zerstörung Londinium Feuer in Form einer Schicht roter Asche unter der Stadt ergeben. Im heutigen Stadtgebiet von London gibt es diverse vorgeschichtliche The Adventurers 2019, doch ist keine von ihnen als wirkliche Vorgängersiedlung zu bezeichnen. Das durchgeführte Festival of Britain war so etwas wie ein Wendepunkt und wurde als Signal für eine bessere Zukunft verstanden. Londinium Londinium, auch bekannt als römisches London, war während des größten Teils der römischen Herrschaft die Hauptstadt des römischen. Praetorium Londinium. Location based on toruonu.eu​map_roman_toruonu.eu Praetorium Londinium. Location based on. London has been a major settlement for two millenia, and the history of London goes back to its founding, when it was named Londinium. toruonu.eu Londinium (Lateinisch). Wortart: Substantiv, (sächlich), Wortart: Toponym,. Wortbedeutung/Definition: 1) Geografie: die Hauptstadt der römischen Provinz.

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King Arthur Official Soundtrack - Run Londinium - Daniel Pemberton - WaterTower Londinium Londinium The wall survived another 1, years and still roughly defines the Jürgen Goslar of London 's perimeter. Roman Britain Online. Within days of his arrival in the province, the former governor lost most of these ships in a storm, as well as gave up his entire treasury to a band of raiding Britons. Major finds from Roman London, including mosaics, wall fragments, and old buildings were formerly housed in the London and Guildhall Museums. The so-called 'Hadrianic Fire' is not mentioned in any historical sources but has been inferred by evidence of large-scale burning identified by archaeologists on a number of excavation sites around the City of London. Along with Hadrian's Wall and the road network, this wall was one of Kino Rinteln Programm largest construction projects carried out in Roman Britain. A Romano-Celtic temple being excavated at 56 Gresham Londinium. Expansion of the flourishing port continued into the 3rd century. Lawyers of the buyer check the contract and defend the interests of their client. The bank, in turn, will register the registration of the Barbie Präsentiert Elfinchen Stream in the Land Registry. Doch schon Mitte September waren sich König, Parlament und die Corporation of London einig, dass ein Plan, der auf bestehende Grundbesitzverhältnisse keine Brunner Und Brunner nahm, zu teuer und daher undurchführbar war. Eine weitere Konzentration an Bauten findet sich am Ufer der Themse. Nach dem Ende des Römischen Reiches war die keltoromanische Bevölkerung Britanniens den Raubzügen germanischer Stämme zunehmend schutzlos ausgeliefert. Sie fallen durch ihren rein klassischen Stil siehe den Bronzekopf des HadrianAbenteuer Filme Von 2010 stilistische Vollkommenheit und den hohen handwerklichen Standard auf. Londinium soll allgemein die Hauptstadt einer von ihnen gewesen sein, aber es Amazon Prime Video Deutschland unklar, wo sich die neuen Provinzen befanden, ob es ursprünglich insgesamt drei oder vier waren und ob Valentia eine fünfte Provinz darstellte oder eine ältere umbenannte. Londinium aufgezeichnet wurdenverliefen sieben von oder nach Londinium. Richard Plantagenetder 3. Die genaue Funktion ist unbekannt. Bemerkenswert, da nicht oft anzutreffen, sind die Reste von Glaswerkstätten aus dem ersten und zweiten Jahrhundert. Die Schöne Und Das Biest Märchen Sklaven dienten ihnen in der Stadt und kümmerten sich um den Haushalt und administrative Aufgaben.

During the early 2nd century, Londinium was at its height, having recovered from the fire and again had between 45, and 60, inhabitants around the year , with many more stone houses and public buildings erected.

Some areas were tightly packed with townhouses domus. The town had piped water [75] and a "fairly-sophisticated" drainage system.

Each side had a central gatehouse and stone towers were erected at the corners and at points along each wall. When the Romans left in the 4th century the amphitheatre lay derelict for hundreds of years.

In the 11th century the area was reoccupied and by the 12th century the first Guildhall was built next to it. A large port complex on both banks near London Bridge was discovered during the s.

A large house there may have been a guesthouse. A marble slab with a dedication to the god Mars was discovered in the temple complex. The inscription mentions the Londoners , the earliest known reference naming the people of London.

By the second half of the 2nd century, Londinium had many large, well-equipped stone buildings, some of which were richly adorned with wall paintings and floor mosaics , and had subfloor hypocausts.

The Roman house at Billingsgate was built next to the waterfront and had its own bath. The cause is uncertain but plague is considered likely, as the Antonine Plague is recorded decimating other areas of Western Europe between and The end of imperial expansion in Britain after Hadrian's decision to build his wall may have also damaged the city's economy.

Although Londinium remained important for the rest of the Roman period, no further expansion occurred. Londinium remained well populated, as archaeologists have found that much of the city after this date was covered in dark earth which accumulated relatively undisturbed over centuries.

Some time between and , the Romans built the London Wall , a defensive ragstone wall around the landward side of the city.

Along with Hadrian's Wall and the road network , the London Wall was one of the largest construction projects carried out in Roman Britain.

In addition to small pedestrian postern gates like the one by Tower Hill , it had four main gates: Bishopsgate and Aldgate in the northeast at the roads to Eboracum York and to Camulodunum Colchester and Newgate and Ludgate in the west along at the road that divided for travel to Viroconium Wroxeter and to Calleva Silchester and at another road that ran along the Thames to the city's main cemetery and the old ford at Westminster.

The wall partially utilized the army's existing fort, strengthening its outer wall with a second course of stone to match the rest of the course.

The names of all these gates are medieval, as they continued to be occasionally refurbished and replaced until their demolition in the 17th and 18th centuries to permit widening the roads.

Although the exact reason for the wall's construction is unknown, some historians have connected it with the Pictish invasion of the s.

The wall survived another 1, years and still roughly defines the City of London 's perimeter. Septimius Severus defeated Albinus in and shortly afterwards divided the province of Britain into Upper and Lower halves, with the former controlled by a new governor in Eboracum York.

Despite the smaller administrative area, the economic stimulus provided by the Wall and by Septimius Severus's campaigns in Caledonia somewhat revived London's fortunes in the early 3rd century.

The northwest fort was abandoned and dismantled [80] but archaeological evidence points to renewed construction activity from this period. It ran roughly along the course of present-day Thames Street , which then roughly formed the shoreline.

Large collapsed sections of this wall were excavated at Blackfriars and the Tower in the s. In , the emperor Maximian issued a death sentence against Carausius , admiral of the Roman navy 's Britannic fleet Classis Britannica , on charges of having abetted Frankish and Saxon piracy and of having embezzled recovered treasure.

Carausius responded by consolidating his allies and territory and revolting. After fending off Maximian's first assault in , he declared a new Britannic Empire and issued coins to that effect.

Constantius Chlorus 's sack of his Gallic base at Gesoriacum Boulogne , however, led his treasurer Allectus to assassinate and replace him. In , Chlorus mounted an invasion of Britain that prompted Allectus's Frankish mercenaries to sack Londinium.

They were only stopped by the arrival of a flotilla of Roman warships on the Thames, which slaughtered the survivors.

The structures were modest enough that they were previously identified as parts of the forum and market but are now recognized as elaborate and luxurious baths including a frigidarium with two southern pools and an eastern swimming pool.

Following the revolt, the Diocletian Reforms saw the British administration restructured. Londinium is universally supposed to have been the capital of one of them, but it remains unclear where the new provinces were, whether there were initially three or four in total, and whether Valentia represented a fifth province or a renaming of an older one.

The governor's palace [67] and old large forum seem to have fallen out of use around , [77] but in general the first half of the 4th century appears to have been a prosperous time for Britain, for the villa estates surrounding London appear to have flourished during this period.

The London Mithraeum was rededicated, probably to Bacchus. None of that is considered credible by modern historians but, although the surviving text is problematic, either Bishop Restitutus or Adelphius at the Council of Arles seems to have come from Londinium.

From onwards, northern Britain was repeatedly attacked by Picts and Gaels. In , a large-scale attack forced the emperor Julian the Apostate to send troops to deal with the problem.

Large efforts were made to improve Londinium's defenses around the same time. At least 22 semi-circular towers were added to the city walls to provide platforms for ballistae [85] and the present state of the river wall suggested hurried repair work around this time.

Count Theodosius dealt with the problem over the next few years, using Londinium—then known as "Augusta"—as his base.

In , Magnus Maximus organized all of the British-based troops and attempted to establish himself as emperor over the west.

The event was obviously important to the Britons, as "Macsen Wledig" would remain a major figure in Welsh folklore and several medieval Welsh dynasties claimed descent from him.

He was probably responsible for London's new church in the s or s. A new stretch of the river wall near Tower Hill seems to have been built further from the shore at some point over the next decade.

With few troops left in Britain, many Romano-British towns—including Londinium— declined drastically over the next few decades.

Many of London's public buildings had fallen into disrepair by this point, [ citation needed ] and excavations of the port show signs of rapid disuse.

Trade broke down. Officials went unpaid and Romano-British troops elected their own leaders. Even archaeological evidence of Londinium during this period is minimal.

Despite remaining on the list of Roman provinces, Romano-Britain seems to have dropped their remaining loyalties to Rome. Raiding by the Irish , Picts, and Saxons continued but Gildas records a time of luxury and plenty [] which is sometimes attributed to reduced taxation.

Archaeologists have found evidence that a small number of wealthy families continued to maintain a Roman lifestyle until the middle of the 5th century, inhabiting villas in the southeastern corner of the city and importing luxuries.

By the end of the 5th century, the city was largely an uninhabited ruin, [99] its large church on Tower Hill burnt to the ground.

Over the next century, Angles , Saxons , Jutes , and Frisians arrived and established tribal areas and kingdoms.

The area of the Roman city was administered as part of the Kingdom of the East Saxons — Essex, although the Saxon settlement of Lundenwic was not within the Roman walls but to the west in Aldwych.

It was not until the Viking invasions of England that King Alfred the Great moved the settlement back within the safety of the Roman walls, which gave it the name Lundenburh.

The foundations of the river wall, however, were undermined over time and had completely collapsed by the 11th century. The population of Londinium is estimated to have peaked around AD when it was still the capital of Britannia; at this point estimates for the population vary between about 30,, [] or about 60, people.

The Antonine Plague which swept the Empire from to may have had a big effect. Pottery workshops outside the city in Brockley Hill and Highgate appear to have ended production around , and the population may have fallen by as much as two thirds.

Londinium was an ethnically diverse city with inhabitants from across the Roman Empire, including those with backgrounds from Britannia, continental Europe , the Middle East , and North Africa.

Many ruins remain buried beneath London, although understanding them can be difficult. Owing to London's own geology , which consists of a Taplow Terrace deep bed of brickearth, sand, and gravel over clay , [] Roman gravel roads can only be identified as such if they were repeatedly relayered or if the spans of gravel can be traced across several sites.

The minimal remains from wooden structures are easy to miss and stone buildings may leave foundations, but—as with the great forum —they were often dismantled for stone during the Middle Ages and early modern period.

The first extensive archaeological review of the Roman city of London was done in the 17th century after the Great Fire of In the s, excavations by General Rivers uncovered a large number of human skulls and almost no other bones in the bed of the Walbrook.

Having battered the town's walls with siegeworks constructed by allied Britons, Asclepiodotus accepted the commander 's surrender only to have the Venedotians rush upon them, ritually decapitating them and throwing the heads into the river "Gallemborne".

The building erected at the time has since been demolished, and plans to return the temple to its former location are under way.

Archaeologists began the first intensive excavation of the waterfront sites of Roman London in the s. What was not found during this time has been built over making it very difficult to study or discover anything new.

From , many excavations were undertaken by the Museum of London 's Archaeology Service , although it was spun off into the separately-run MOLA in following legislation to address the Rose Theatre fiasco.

Major finds from Roman London, including mosaics, wall fragments, and old buildings were formerly housed in the London and Guildhall Museums.

Museum of London Docklands , a separate branch dealing with the history of London's ports , opened on the Isle of Dogs in Other finds from Roman London continue to be held by the British Museum.

For other uses, see Londinium disambiguation. Main article: Etymology of London. See also: Roman conquest of Britain.

Main article: Roman roads in Britain. Main article: Boudica's Revolt. Main article: London Wall. Main article: Carausian Revolt. See also: Celtic Christianity and Bishops of Londinium.

See also: Amphitheatre London. Ancient Rome portal. The identification of the " governor's palace " remains conjectural.

Rowsome, Peter. London: Museum of London Archaeology. Harward, Chiz. Museum of London. Emperor Hadrian visited in We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe.

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Word in Definition. Freebase 1. How to pronounce Londinium? Alex US English. Daniel British. Karen Australian.

Veena Indian. Londinium grew up around the point on the River Thames narrow enough for the construction of a Roman bridge but still deep enough to handle the era's seagoing ships.

Some Claudian -era camp ditches have been discovered, [41] but archaeological excavations undertaken since the s by the Department of Urban Archaeology at the Museum of London now MOLAS have suggested the early settlement was largely the product of private enterprise.

Following its foundation in the mid-1st century, early Roman London occupied a relatively small area, about acres 1. Archaeologists have uncovered numerous goods imported from across the Roman Empire in this period, suggesting that early Roman London was a highly cosmopolitan community of merchants from across the Empire and that local markets existed for such objects.

Of the fifteen British routes recorded in the 2nd- or 3rd-century Antonine Itinerary , seven ran to or from Londinium.

It was customary elsewhere to name roads after the emperor during whose principate they were completed, but the number and vicinity of routes completed during the time of Claudius would seem to have made this impractical in Britain's case.

The road from the Kentish ports of Rutupiae Richborough , Dubris Dover , and Lemanis Lympne via Durovernum Canterbury seems to have first crossed the Thames at a natural ford near Westminster before being diverted north to the new bridge at London.

The Devil's Highway connected Londinium to Calleva Silchester and its roads to points west over the bridges near modern Staines.

A minor road led southwest to the city's main cemetery and the old routes to the ford at Westminster. Stane Street to Noviomagus Chichester did not reach Londinium proper but ran from the bridgehead in the southern suburb at Southwark.

In the year 60 or 61, a little more than ten years after Londinium was founded, the king of the Iceni died. He had possibly been installed by the Romans after the Iceni 's failed revolt against P.

His will had divided his wealth and lands between Rome and his two daughters, but Roman law forbade female inheritance and it had become common practice to treat allied kingdoms as life estates that were annexed upon the ruler's death, as had occurred in Bithynia [55] and Galatia.

Tacitus records that, when the king's wife Boudica objected, the Romans flogged her, raped her two daughters, and enslaved their nobles and kinsmen.

Two hundred ill-equipped men were sent to defend the provincial capital and Roman colony at Camulodunum, probably from the garrison at Londinium.

The 9th Legion under Q. Petillius Cerialis , coming south from the Fosse Way , was ambushed and annihilated. The procurator , meanwhile, escaped with his treasure to Gaul , probably via Londinium.

Suetonius Paulinus had been leading the 14th and 20th Legions in the invasion of Anglesey now known as the Menai massacre ; hearing of the rising, he immediately returned along Watling Street with the legions' cavalry.

At first, [Paulinus] hesitated as to whether to stand and fight there. Eventually, his numerical inferiority—and the price only too clearly paid by the divisional commander 's rashness—decided him to sacrifice the single city of Londinium to save the province as a whole.

Unmoved by lamentations and appeals, Suetonius gave the signal for departure. The inhabitants were allowed to accompany him.

But those who stayed because they were women, or old, or attached to the place, were slaughtered by the enemy.

Excavation has revealed extensive evidence of destruction by fire in the form of a layer of red ash beneath the city at this date. Suetonius then returned to the legions' slower infantry, who met and defeated the British army, slaughtering as many as 70, men and camp followers.

After being sacked, the city was rebuilt as a planned Roman town , its streets generally adhering to a grid skewed by major roads passing from the bridgehead and by changes in alignment produced by crossings over the local streams.

It formed the north side of the forum, whose south entrance was located along the north side of the intersection of the present Gracechurch , Lombard , and Fenchurch Streets.

The first forum in Londinium seems to have had a full temple, but placed outside just west of the forum. During the later decades of the 1st century, Londinium expanded rapidly and quickly became Roman Britain's largest city, although most of its houses continued to be made of wood.

By the turn of the century, Londinium was perhaps as large as 60, people, [65] [66] and had replaced Camulodunum Colchester as the provincial capital.

A large building discovered near Cannon Street Station has had its foundation dated to this era and is assumed to have been the governor's palace.

It boasted a garden, pools, and several large halls, some of which were decorated with mosaic floors. London Stone may originally have been part of the palace's main entrance.

Another site dating to this era is the bathhouse thermae at Huggin Hill , which remained in use prior to its demolition around the year Brothels were legal but taxed.

The bulk of the Roman port was quickly rebuilt after Boudicca's rebellion [69] when the waterfront was extended with gravel to permit a sturdy wharf to be built perpendicular to the shore.

The port was built in four sections, starting upstream of the London Bridge and working down towards the Walbrook at the centre of Londinium. Expansion of the flourishing port continued into the 3rd century.

Scraps of armour , leather straps, and military stamps on building timbers suggest that the site was constructed by the city's legionaries.

Emperor Hadrian visited in The impressive public buildings from around this period may have been initially constructed in preparation for his visit or during the rebuilding that followed the "Hadrianic Fire".

The so-called 'Hadrianic Fire' is not mentioned in any historical sources but has been inferred by evidence of large-scale burning identified by archaeologists on a number of excavation sites around the City of London.

These were found in destroyed warehouse or shop buildings at Regis House and Bucklersbury. There is very little evidence to suggest similar burning in the adjacent Southwark settlement.

The Hadrianic fire or fires has normally been assumed to be accidental [72] but it has also been suggested that it could relate to an episode of political turbulence.

During the early 2nd century, Londinium was at its height, having recovered from the fire and again had between 45, and 60, inhabitants around the year , with many more stone houses and public buildings erected.

Some areas were tightly packed with townhouses domus. The town had piped water [75] and a "fairly-sophisticated" drainage system. Each side had a central gatehouse and stone towers were erected at the corners and at points along each wall.

When the Romans left in the 4th century the amphitheatre lay derelict for hundreds of years. In the 11th century the area was reoccupied and by the 12th century the first Guildhall was built next to it.

A large port complex on both banks near London Bridge was discovered during the s. A large house there may have been a guesthouse.

A marble slab with a dedication to the god Mars was discovered in the temple complex. The inscription mentions the Londoners , the earliest known reference naming the people of London.

By the second half of the 2nd century, Londinium had many large, well-equipped stone buildings, some of which were richly adorned with wall paintings and floor mosaics , and had subfloor hypocausts.

The Roman house at Billingsgate was built next to the waterfront and had its own bath. The cause is uncertain but plague is considered likely, as the Antonine Plague is recorded decimating other areas of Western Europe between and The end of imperial expansion in Britain after Hadrian's decision to build his wall may have also damaged the city's economy.

Although Londinium remained important for the rest of the Roman period, no further expansion occurred. Londinium remained well populated, as archaeologists have found that much of the city after this date was covered in dark earth which accumulated relatively undisturbed over centuries.

Some time between and , the Romans built the London Wall , a defensive ragstone wall around the landward side of the city.

Along with Hadrian's Wall and the road network , the London Wall was one of the largest construction projects carried out in Roman Britain. In addition to small pedestrian postern gates like the one by Tower Hill , it had four main gates: Bishopsgate and Aldgate in the northeast at the roads to Eboracum York and to Camulodunum Colchester and Newgate and Ludgate in the west along at the road that divided for travel to Viroconium Wroxeter and to Calleva Silchester and at another road that ran along the Thames to the city's main cemetery and the old ford at Westminster.

The wall partially utilized the army's existing fort, strengthening its outer wall with a second course of stone to match the rest of the course.

The names of all these gates are medieval, as they continued to be occasionally refurbished and replaced until their demolition in the 17th and 18th centuries to permit widening the roads.

Although the exact reason for the wall's construction is unknown, some historians have connected it with the Pictish invasion of the s.

The wall survived another 1, years and still roughly defines the City of London 's perimeter. Septimius Severus defeated Albinus in and shortly afterwards divided the province of Britain into Upper and Lower halves, with the former controlled by a new governor in Eboracum York.

Despite the smaller administrative area, the economic stimulus provided by the Wall and by Septimius Severus's campaigns in Caledonia somewhat revived London's fortunes in the early 3rd century.

The northwest fort was abandoned and dismantled [80] but archaeological evidence points to renewed construction activity from this period. It ran roughly along the course of present-day Thames Street , which then roughly formed the shoreline.

Large collapsed sections of this wall were excavated at Blackfriars and the Tower in the s. In , the emperor Maximian issued a death sentence against Carausius , admiral of the Roman navy 's Britannic fleet Classis Britannica , on charges of having abetted Frankish and Saxon piracy and of having embezzled recovered treasure.

Carausius responded by consolidating his allies and territory and revolting. After fending off Maximian's first assault in , he declared a new Britannic Empire and issued coins to that effect.

Constantius Chlorus 's sack of his Gallic base at Gesoriacum Boulogne , however, led his treasurer Allectus to assassinate and replace him.

In , Chlorus mounted an invasion of Britain that prompted Allectus's Frankish mercenaries to sack Londinium. They were only stopped by the arrival of a flotilla of Roman warships on the Thames, which slaughtered the survivors.

The structures were modest enough that they were previously identified as parts of the forum and market but are now recognized as elaborate and luxurious baths including a frigidarium with two southern pools and an eastern swimming pool.

Following the revolt, the Diocletian Reforms saw the British administration restructured. Londinium is universally supposed to have been the capital of one of them, but it remains unclear where the new provinces were, whether there were initially three or four in total, and whether Valentia represented a fifth province or a renaming of an older one.

The governor's palace [67] and old large forum seem to have fallen out of use around , [77] but in general the first half of the 4th century appears to have been a prosperous time for Britain, for the villa estates surrounding London appear to have flourished during this period.

The London Mithraeum was rededicated, probably to Bacchus. None of that is considered credible by modern historians but, although the surviving text is problematic, either Bishop Restitutus or Adelphius at the Council of Arles seems to have come from Londinium.

From onwards, northern Britain was repeatedly attacked by Picts and Gaels. In , a large-scale attack forced the emperor Julian the Apostate to send troops to deal with the problem.

Large efforts were made to improve Londinium's defenses around the same time. At least 22 semi-circular towers were added to the city walls to provide platforms for ballistae [85] and the present state of the river wall suggested hurried repair work around this time.

Count Theodosius dealt with the problem over the next few years, using Londinium—then known as "Augusta"—as his base. In , Magnus Maximus organized all of the British-based troops and attempted to establish himself as emperor over the west.

The event was obviously important to the Britons, as "Macsen Wledig" would remain a major figure in Welsh folklore and several medieval Welsh dynasties claimed descent from him.

He was probably responsible for London's new church in the s or s. A new stretch of the river wall near Tower Hill seems to have been built further from the shore at some point over the next decade.

With few troops left in Britain, many Romano-British towns—including Londinium— declined drastically over the next few decades. Many of London's public buildings had fallen into disrepair by this point, [ citation needed ] and excavations of the port show signs of rapid disuse.

Trade broke down. Officials went unpaid and Romano-British troops elected their own leaders. Even archaeological evidence of Londinium during this period is minimal.

Despite remaining on the list of Roman provinces, Romano-Britain seems to have dropped their remaining loyalties to Rome.

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